Friday, 23 August 2013

COP Publication - Final Photography/ Emotional Products

Along with my literature reviews and secondary information I'd began to review various TV advertisements and noting consistent themes I could spot. I also pursued background research that helped me understand core emotional drivers and enlightened my understanding of contemporary tactics.

I'd managed to choose 7 different products that in my opinion showed a good and varying extent of how advertisers have attached emotional messages (aka Core Emotional Drivers) 

For each product - I had a very interesting description to fit which had been developed through my research and is displayed under each photograph.

What the photographs below are ultimately showing is a product that has been built up by emotional messaging, delivered in a black and white format because there is no manipulation... the answers are in black and white.

COP Publication - Design Development 2

After photographing my selected emotional products, I tried to digitally enhance my designs by forming  2 separate patterns to include in my publication and supportive material. As you can see below the pattern consists of 3 products repeated. The other pattern can be found within the printed publication.

The reason for such an exhibition was to show viewers how products have become popular in contemporary culture for the emotional messages that are tied to them. Advertisers are employing tactics to make viewers ultimately feel better about themselves. For the logo of my exhibition I thought it was appropriate to use the Chanel logo as it coincided with the title of my exhibition and was strongly suggesting the core message... Don't be deceived by what you see. The exhibition also takes on its cultural message of luxury which will theoretically be passed onto my exhibition. 

Colour Scheme; I wanted the only colours visible at the exhibition to be those coming from the actual products. Everything else I wanted to be in black and white to give the exhibition a very contemporary and modernist appearance. The main reason for a black and white colour scheme is also... Giving you the truth, in black and white.

As the exhibition will be educational and informative. I decided that it would be a good idea to create a web based concept that could be accessed outside of the exhibition. Promoting peoples awareness and also injecting some fun into the educational side of things.

The game is based around selecting a core emotional driver that matches that of a certain product. Selecting the correct driver, will reveal the message tied to it.

Staff Uniform...

How the exhibition would look...

The black book found on the pillars represents the publication to read as you pass by each product. The white booklet would be my essay acting as supporting material for viewers to read, giving them a rich source of information surrounding the reasons for advertisers employing such tactics.

Entry ticket, Wristband & Lanyard

COP Publication - Design Development 1

Consumerism in a contemporary culture. 

Following on from my essay title; "How is Psychoanalysis used within contemporary advertising." I wanted to find out more about the shift in consumers ideologies and how we've become to value goods for their arbitrary value rather than their utilitarian functions. Ultimately I wanted to explore how emotional marketing has effected some of the most notable products in todays culture. 

I needed to think about how I'd present my findings in a way that was memorable, dynamic and interesting that would suit the contemporary audience it was aimed at...

One of my most interesting ideas was to develop an exhibition & supporting material, that would showcase various famous products, in a real light, a light that would exploit the core emotional drivers behind each product that advertisers have generated.

I began Illustrating the emotional message tied to beer. The core emotional driver behind beer adverts was 'Independence' which I know from research into . I needed to think of potential ways I could combine both the products...with their emotional drivers and still have both of these aspects visible.

Shadows are known to reveal the frame or outline of something in particular lighting. After some background research, I had the idea to use the shadow as the revealing emotional driver behind the products.

Experimentation with projections and visualising what could be achieved through the use of light?

For each product I needed to create a vague outline, with this outline, I'd build up my own illustrations, taking form around the surrounding shape. Hopefully using this technique will leave me with a set of designs that are recognisable as products from a distance.

Could a similar technique be used in the exhibition? but with the shadow being the truth to the products appeal...

Illustration development, my idea was quite ambitious because I wasn't just setting out to gather information and collate research into a publication. I was aiming to produce an exhibition, supporting materials, illustrations & web-based concepts. Producing something that could potentially be put into action in the real world to inform and educate people in contemporary culture.

After investigating the usefulness of a projector, I set out to laser cut my illustrations, this meant I could place the cutouts onto the projector and decide on a suitable approach that would work within my publication for the audience to view around the exhibition.

Guidelines - I wanted the publication to be quite self explanatory consisting of the same layout throughout. This including; Photography, Description, title, logo and pattern.

Thursday, 22 August 2013

Initial Idea Development - COP Publication

COP Essay


"Studies estimate that, counting all the logos, labels, and announcements, some 16,000 ads flicker across an individuals consciousness daily."


This essay will explore Psychoanalysis, delving into its basis and creation, exploring how it governs our personality. Using secondary sources such as; Literature, Documentaries, Interviews & eBooks, the characteristic nature of my essay has become based around the consumerist ethos in contemporary consumer culture. Identifying how advertisements have awakened a keen sense of possession in potential purchasers.

Psychoanalysis refers to a psychological theory conceived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. It was an attempt to understand the unconscious human mind and its mental development, a way of categorising and understanding desires, motivations and dreams. Freud believed

          "Unconscious wishes are always active and ready for expression whenever they find an opportunity to unite themselves with an emotion from conscious life" (Freud, 1913).

Freud was the first person to look at the mind and to develop a theory about its basis and creation, in effect he established the foundation for our current thinking about the mind. Freud assumes that adult behaviour reflects complex interactions between conscious and unconscious forces operating within the 'psyche'. The key element of Freud's work on Psychoanalysis was his model on the structure of personality. In Freudian psychoanalysis, the mind, or psyche, is seen as being governed by three main mental processes - innate drives, reason and morality. Better known as; The ID, The Ego & The Superego. It is these three states of mind that determine our personality and shape our sense of identity.

Dr Warren Procci, Former president of the American Psychoanalytic Association describes the ID

"as something akin to what Freud would say is the unconscious, Freud saw sex and aggression as the two fundamental forces that pushed and motivated individuals" (Procci, 2012).

This part of the psyche is instinctual psychic energy that we are born with. The most important aspect of this psychic energy is the libido (sexual energy). The ID operates on the pleasure principle and constantly tries to gratify these instincts through pleasurable activity.

The Ego: This part of the psyche represents our conscious self, it tries to balance the demands for the ID for self-gratification with the moral rules imposed by the Superego. The Ego operates on the reality principle as it constantly balances the demands of the real world against the instinctive drives of the ID. Due to this, it is also referred to as the executive of the personality or as Dr Warren Procci describes it,

"The executive organ of the mind. Enabling the individual to both control and contain the impulses of the ID, allowing the individual to have some form of expression that allows the individual to lead some kind of reasonably healthy and balanced life" (Procci, 2012).

The Superego: This is our personal moral authority, or conscience, it develops later in childhood (around the age of 5 or 6) through identification with one or other parent, at which point the child internalises the moral rules and social norms of society.

"It's a sense that allows not only people to express various wishes and impulses, but to express them in a way that’s consistent with societal laws, so that when they feel the need, wish or desire, they have a sense of what’s consistent with society and culture around them, and they conduct themselves in accordance with that"(Procci, 2012).

This is a very important point because it demonstrates how a contemporary culture saturated in advertising will alter ones interpretation of stimuli.

If within the psyche, the ego fails to balance the demands of the ID and the Superego, Intra-psychic conflict may arise and this can result in a person acting upon their instinctive energy to seek gratification in the form of pleasure. More specifically if the ID is not kept in check by the ego, then a person acts on their immediate desires and impulses. This is because the id contains all of our most basic animal and primitive impulses that demand satisfaction. Such a theory explains why people get urges, impulses and desires so strong that they have to satisfy them, for e.g. a new car, sexual desire, a dream job. It's important to also think about where you'd be without desire? Your desire pushes you through life. Without it we'd die, so we need to keep in mind that a large part of personality consists of your desires and your attempts to satisfy them.

"Advertisers know that the meaning of a stimulus is interpreted by the individual, who is influenced by his or her unique biases, needs and experiences" 

To illustrate this point, Marlboro cigarettes released advertisements that say smoking Marlboros will make purchasers feel manlier. However, the side effects of smoking in general are likely to make that person feel less than manly, yet the message is 'If you buy this product, then you'll obtain the pinnacle of manliness'. Magically imbuing them with the manliness they feel they lack.  Furthermore, while thirst is biologically based, we are taught to want Coca-Cola to satisfy that thirst. Rather than, say goat's milk. Thus the need or desire is already there: Marketers simply recommend ways to satisfy it, directing your impulses. The 'Diet Coke break' advertisements are also a strong example of advertisements promoting a desire to consume, associating their brand with virile sex appeal, the advertisement features a group of women taking a "Diet Coke break" to scope out some brawny, good looking, and shirtless gardener, this is a perfect example of using a masculine image to sell that desire to women.

The theory of psychoanalysis helps us to understand why things are as they are and what it is to be human; perspectives, feelings, beliefs and desires. All of these things create our perceived identities which are subsequently influenced by the moral breakdown of society.

In order to effectively understand how psychoanalysis is used within contemporary advertising, you need to be aware of the shift in the consumerist ethos that has led to the present consumer culture. Before 1900, advertising was mostly informational, Ads described products and appealed to consumer's logic and judgement. World War 1 and the 1920s saw advertising shift from text to more emotional and image centred modes 

"It was this new approach to advertising which, according to John Tennant, would 'awaken a keen sense of possession in the potential purchaser. Compounded by the rise of instinct psychology" (Jobling, Crowley, 1996).

In essence advertising was becoming less about products and more about the emotional and social lives of the people buying the products

"Advertising and the role of consumer behaviour became strictly interrelated as such were regarded as instrumental in determining the success or failure of any product or service" (Jobling, Crowley, 1996)

Advertising had started to sell values, images, concepts, teaching us that products can fulfil and meet our deepest human needs. Thus causing consumerists to interpret an advertisement based on its meaning in the light of associations we have with these images.

A number of authors have considered the idea of advertising being the dream life of our culture, reflecting the things we really want out of life.

Richards, MacRury, Botterill (2000), Judith, Williamson (1984) and Jobling, Crowley (1996) have all commented upon the fact that advertisers don't create false needs and wants, instead they take our real desires and link them with merchandise, for instance Jobling & Crowley when analysing the work of John Tennant points out that this dynamic of advertising

            "Awakens a keen sense of possession in the potential purchaser".

Richards, MacRury & Botterill support this argument with an investigation into how

"Each advertisement projects into the space out in front of it an imaginary person composed in terms of the relationship between the elements within the advertisement"

You move into this space as you look at the advertisement, and in doing so become the spectator, you feel that it really did apply to you in particular. This concept is clearly further supported by Judith & Williamson in their study of ideology and meaning,

"Advertisements translate 'things' or descriptive statements of attributes of any particular commodity into human statements so that, for example, the high mileage per gallon of a car translates into thriftiness or clever saving. In other words, the image addresses us as a certain sort of person. Facts are given symbolic exchange values, translated in terms of human qualities"

These three authors support the idea that humans are meaning making creatures, always wondering 'Who am I?' and 'Why do things work the way they do?' After a century of experience, advertisers understand the power of feelings, beliefs and desires. Creating stimuli to make individuals salivate, convincing consumers that they 'need' many material goods and that they will be unhappy and somehow inferior if they do not have these 'necessities'. Since consumers use products to express their social identities, products are given meanings by their producers and we rely on advertising to work out what those meanings are.

"A 'need' is a basic biological motive, while a 'want' represents one way that society has taught us that the need can be satisfied." (Solomon, 2006).

In light of the ideology that advertisers are creating stimuli to make individuals salivate, contemporary advertisers have created products that almost train us to elicit responses, this approach is prevalent with 'Corona' advertisements, such as those found in my bibliography. Corona is just any old beer, but every time I drink a Corona, the thought of relaxing is in mind, why is this? Because they've learned and taught us to associate the brand with feeling. Subconsciously suggesting that they share values with us and that they have a similar vantage point on the world, ultimately they're holding up a mirror and stating that they're just like me and you. Such advertisements almost interrupt the order of the day hailing us into its meaningful world by offering a subject position within the ideological system of the ad, when we are interpellated, we exchange our self with the subject position created by the ad. Thus interrelating the role of consumer behaviour and advertising. This point is further supported by Williamsons account on signifiers (1984)

"Chanel used the face of Catherine Deneuve in their advertisements for Chanel No.5. In so doing, it used an existing mythological system: Catherine Deneuve as signifier for the signified, 'classic French glamour and beauty' Advertisements transfer meanings by juxtaposing two objects simultaneously given the same value but they do not do so entirely within the closed world of advertisement. The advertisers signs have meaning only in relation to a wider set of meanings."

It is through this wider set of meaning, which consumers have, that products are turned from signified into signifiers. As receivers of advertisements we create the meaning but only because we have been called upon to do so. Just as I have become to relate Corona with relaxing, through their use of signifiers, e.g. beaches.

It's impossible to fundamentally grasp the social and cultural developments of the past 100 years without some understanding of Edward Bernays, also known as 'The Father of public relations'. Bernays drew upon his uncle, Sigmund Freud, using his psychoanalytic ideas for the benefit of commerce and promotion of commodities, he was adopting techniques that would ultimately control the masses

"If we understand the mechanisms and motives of the group mind, it is possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing it" (Bernays, 1928).

In other words Bernays understood that consumers often share the same demographic characteristics (habits, tastes, economic status, sex, age and so on) yet could still be very different people. Meaning there was a chance to target consumer segments that will share a set of preferences for their products and services. Bernays had recognised the unconscious desire to advertising and PR campaigns. He had revolutionised advertising by applying Manipulation techniques. The implications of this are grand and Bernays grasped it immediately, most people even today do not see the incredible power of this notion, Society has stopped manufacturing "goods" and cranks out "desires". You don't logically need a new car - but just think of how much better you are going to feel when you have the car and you've fulfilled the needs of your ID's desire. Sigmund Freud's ideas about psychoanalysis impacted virtually every field, but very few changed as dramatically as advertising.

"Advertising performs a potent mutation of the symbolic order" (Richards, MacRury, Botterill, 2000).

The underlying answer was simple… Understanding consumer behaviour is good business.

A number of authors have considered how Advertising teaches us above all to be consumers, that there are instant solutions to life's complex problems, that happiness can be bought and that products can fulfil and gratify our instincts for pleasurable activity. A consumer is generally thought of as a person who identifies a need or desire.

Kilbourne (2006) & Richards, MacRury, Botterill (2000), have all commented upon the fact that the problem is that what advertising offers - material products - ultimately cannot satisfy our deeply felt needs. They are tricking us, interacting with our emotions and social lives through the use of

"Duplicitous and seductive images to enhance its emphatic solicitations of identification, it invites, into the ordered processes of differentiated symbolic signification" (Richards, MacRury, Botterill, 2000).

Sometimes promoting anxiety, discomfort and inadequacy. This position is supported by Jean Kilbourne's documentary 'Killing us softly' which analyses the subject of women in advertising –

"The first thing the advertisers do is surround us with the image of ideal female beauty, so we all learn how important it is for a woman to be beautiful, and exactly what it takes."

What she's really doing here is objecting to the use of 'ideal female beauty' and that it is not as important for a women to be beautiful as advertisers suggest, despite this we all have an innate idea of what is attractive about women, and advertisers are merely exploiting this, encouraging the idea of doubt and making people feel uncomfortable in their skins, this causes Intra-psychic conflict to arise between the id, ego and superego which can result in acts of immediate impulse to gratify their desires, Richards, MacRury & Botterill support this idea, investigating how

"An advertisement dangles before us as an image of another, but invites us to become the same. It thus capitalises on our regressive tendency towards the imaginary unity of the ego deal".

Much of our physical, informational, and cultural space is now for sale - billboards, TV, magazines, newspapers, all of these spaces pitch products promising to improve our lives, manipulating our way of thinking. The psychological manipulation of advertising

"Is a type of social influence that aims to change the perception or behaviour of others" (Wikipedia).

It has become the most powerful socialising force in our society, this is supported by the 1929 case study 'Torches of Freedom' which sees a 100 year old taboo against women smoking end overnight. Through psycho-analytical methods, Bernays determined smoking gave women a hypothetical symbol of the penis, which challenged male sexual identity so much that men were sub-consciously keeping women from smoking. Bernays sought the advice of the psychoanalyst A.A Brill. Brill's message to Bernays was 'freedom', sell cigarettes to women as a symbol of liberation. He hired beautiful fashion models to march in New York's prominent Easter Parade, each waving a lit cigarette and wearing a banner proclaiming it a 'torch of liberty'. He was exploiting women's aspirations for a better life, targeting the basic primitive impulses of the ID that demand satisfaction.

Consumers tend to project their own experiences and aspirations to assign meaning, as demonstrated in the 'Torches of Freedom' example. For this reason much of the meaning we take away is influenced by what we make of the symbolism we perceive.

"After all, on the surface many marketing images have virtually no literal connection to actual products. What does a cowboy have to do with a bit of tobacco rolled into a paper tube? How can a celebrity such as the football star Gary Lineker enhance the image of a potato crisp, or can Jamie Oliver do a good job for Sainsbury's?" (Solomon, 2006).

A number of authors have considered this creation of meaning and the role of symbolism in ones interpretation. Sheehan (2004), Galbraith (1958) & Phillips (1997) have all commented upon the fact that

"Advertisements that implicitly suggest a meaning can have a stronger effect on our desires than advertisements that explicitly state a meaning. A suggestion, rather than an explicit statement has the potential to outmanoeuvre any rational decision making we do as consumers" (Sheehan 2004).

This describes how we would not have choices as consumers if advertising did not suggest that for example, designer clothing has a value that makes it imperative that certain people purchase the clothing. This is supported by Phillips who describes how advertisements have the ability to create the

"Illusion that it will satisfy conscious or unconscious desires that it may not, in fact, satisfy".

Galbraith (1958) discusses the creation of consumer wants by the same entities that also satisfy those wants. Galbraith argued that

"Companies create specific products and services and then use advertising to create desires among consumers that the products they have created can satisfy. In the affluent society, goods become highly important and valued more than many other aspects of society".

This is supported by the Old Spice 'the Man your Man can smell like' campaign, who adopt a super cool guy on a mission to tell women that "anything is possible" if they buy their men Old Spice body wash. In a cultural context women tend to be in charge of most small household purchases, like soap and deodorant. So using a sexy, suave dude, in nothing but a bath towel to convince women to buy Old Spice for their man is a good strategy.

In conclusion, Advertisers play a major part in shaping society's values, habits and direction. We might applaud the aesthetic and technical standards of many of the ads themselves or at worst regard them as superficial, unreliable and intrusive, but it is hard to get away from them and to resist the general temptations and advantages of the consumer society. It is often hard to pin down what is actually objectionable about ads because in most cases, advertisers simply do not know enough about people to manipulate them directly, but it is argued that 'needs' are formed by the social environment, as I mentioned earlier in the case of the Coca-Cola vs. goat's milk example, it should be remembered that we do not eat and drink solely to satisfy a biological need. We eat and drink for a number of reasons, all of them embedded in our cultural context. It is this cultural context that cause people to conduct themselves accordingly, internalising the thought that yourself, your personal relationships, your success and your image all depend on your consumer choices. Establishing the foundation for our current thinking.

Thus it seems that marketers do not create artificial needs, but they do contribute heavily to the socialisation of people in contemporary society and thus to the establishment of the social system of needs. Consequently, marketers must take a share of responsibility for the development of society and the manipulation of the masses that has ultimately caused the human mind to not sufficiently value goods for the utilitarian functions they deliver, but instead focus on the irrational value of goods for what they symbolize.

"Beer would be enough for us, without the additional promise that in drinking it we show ourselves to be manly, young at heart, or neighbourly. A washing machine would be a useful machine to wash clothes, rather than an indication that we are forward-looking or an object of envy to our neighbours" (Leiss, 2005).


Sigmund Freud (1913) The Interpretation of Dreams, New York: The Macmillan Company.

Dr Warren Procci (2012) Interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego,

William Leiss (2005) Social Communication in Advertising, New York: Routledge.

Michael R. Solomon (2006) Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective, 3rd. England: Pearson Education.

Jean Kilbourne (2009) Killing us softly, 4th. USA.

Barry Richards, Iain MacRury, Jackie Botterill (2000) The Dynamics of Advertising, United Kingdom: Routledge.

Paul Jobling, David Crowley (1996) Graphic Design: Reproduction and Representation 'In the Empire of Signs', United Kingdom: Manchester University Press.

Judith, Williamson (1984) Decoding Advertisements: Ideology & meaning in advertising, USA: Marion Boyars.

Kim Sheehan (2004) Controversies in Contemporary Advertising, USA: Sage Publications Inc.

Michael J. Phillips (1997) Ethics and Manipulation in Advertising , USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

John Kenneth Galbraith (1958) The Affluent Society, New York, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Edward Bernays (1928) Propaganda, New York, Brooklyn: Ig Publishing.

CEO of the Marketing Association of ANZ (August 8,2012) 'Perception in Marketing', SmartaMarketing, Available at:

Case Study: Corona Find Your Beach (Uploaded on Feb 29, 2012) Available at:

Judith, Williamson (1984) Decoding Advertisements: Ideology & meaning in advertising, USA: Marion Boyars. IMAGE ANALYSIS, Chanel No5, Catherine Deneuve – Image Signifiers.

Wednesday, 21 August 2013

COP Publication - Points of Investigation 4/ Emotional Sales

Why do we all want the iPhone despite its obvious problems? It's an emotion driven purchase. But that may only get Apple so far. Emotions Matter in Sales and Marketing. If you disagree, you’ve probably already entered into a defensive mind-set with regard to this article. This too is an emotion, so get-over-it and keep an open mind. If you agree, you’ve probably already decided to read the entire article and are even thinking of tweeting this to your friends and professional network (which I thank you for). There are plenty of folks that think emotions and feelings should not be in the workplace. These individuals usually boil everything down to time and/or money, and they think everyone will just “deal” with product flaws, poor design and bad corporate communications/marketing.
While that may be true, it is important to realize that if people are continuing to purchase your product even with a major flaw, it’s likely because you’re living on previous product successes and because your Marketing team has earned enough “emotional credits” with consumers to permit it. Equally as important to note is that these credits can be pulled completely with a single failure — if it’s big enough. So, beware of letting yourself think of poor product, design and communication as acceptable in the long run or you’ll find yourself with too many burned bridges to make a come-back.  If you need to delay a release (other market variables permitting) to fix a critical flaw — do it.
We’ve seen a few high profile brands go though product failures lately – Apple is probably one of the best examples of this. Apple’s iPhone4 antenna fiasco is pretty serious. I mean you can drop a call by simply holding your phone. This is a HUGE product flaw that Apple was quick to point-out also manifests itself in other mobile phones. But as we all learned when we were children, just because the kid down the street went bumper hitching in the snow, it doesn’t mean you should do it too. Especially, if like Apple, you are perceived by many as the category leader in innovation and quality. Yet, even with this highly publicised critical design flaw, Apple’s iPhone sales don’t seem to have been impacted and customers seem to be willing to live with the reception problems. As an indicator, I invite you to go to an Apple store tonight where you’ll likely still find a line of people waiting to purchase the iPhone4.
This observation could of course be a fluke, so if we look at sales numbers as another indicator we can find that so far Apple has sold more than 3 million iPhone4 units and has only seen a 1.7% return rate.  These numbers show strength and solid product sales trajectories — but why? It doesn’t make sense.  If these 3 million consumers thought about it from a logical point of view, they would not have made the purchase. I mean, reception is probably the single most important feature for a mobile phone? Right? 
These are clearly emotion driven purchases, not logic driven purchases. The iPhone4 is a status symbol of sorts. You might not be able to afford the Porsche — but no one knows what you drive while you’re in a meeting or at the restaurant or sitting and having coffee at your high-end coffee shop. The mobile phone is the most personal piece of technology you own and we all want to feel good about ourselves.
Because of this, Apple knows it has enough currency in the bank to see little impact on sales in the US. But the question in my mind comes back to the emotion credits Apple has in the bank. How many is Apple planning to burn and when will it start getting push-back? Today Apple went back to claim more credits and showed a lot of confidence in its brand strength in 17 more markets with the official announcement that international sales will be kicked-off on July 30th. I hope Apple avoids this slippery slope, and that Steve Jobs decides to delay the white iPhone4 until the antenna issue is fixed with more than a plastic case. Until then, I’ll be the guy at the dinner table that is continuously sneaking looks at the iPhone4 everyone has proudly on display, while I pontificate on why Apple should tread carefully (and keep my 3GS hidden in my jacket pocket).
Editor's Note: Read more from Jason Munson starting with: Why Mobile Websites Are Better than Mobile Applications 
Jason Munson is General Manager-Atlanta, of Siteworx, Inc., an award-winning interactive agency with deep Web content management (WCM) roots with expertise developing cutting-edge approaches to social media, mobile and content management challenges. Follow Jason on Twitter @JasonMunson or email him

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